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ColoradoSQL Bloggers

Friday, June 26, 2015 5:32:56 AM
Glad that I had a full 2 week vacation before this week! Amazing what can happen in one week.

Week started off with accepting an offer for a new job at Chipotle! Looking forward to using all of my SQL BI knowledge to help them out. It has been a great run at RevGen Partners and I appreciate all of the help and support I have received over the last year there. I'll miss all of the friends that I know there, but the good thing is I'm staying in Denver, so I'm sure I'll run into them many times in the future.

Many have asked why I decided to move away from consulting and the only thing that I can say is that I realized that I really want to see how the decisions and changes that I make will go over a much longer period of time. Maybe I'm getting old, but I just started to feel like I wanted to see things over the long term, not just for the next few weeks/months. I really enjoyed that in my time at Visa where I got to see a decision that I had a lot of influence in turn into something much bigger than I ever would have hoped, but it took time and patience to see that happen. I see a lot of great potential for that at Chipotle and I am looking forward to the challenge of Retail/Food Service which I have not worked in since High School (yay Pizza Hut New Haven)! Thankfully for all of you I'll be in the HQ buildings, not in the kitchen. ;)

Next thing this week was my 24 Hours of PASS: Growing our Community presentation "Introduction to the Power BI Designer" on Wednesday afternoon. I was very well prepared and ready for it, once we opened it up I was happy to see over 200 attendees in the opening minutes. Then the strangest thing that I have seen with GoTo Meeting happened when the whole session came to an end for everyone about 15 minutes in. After my initial panic of trying to figure out what to do I just clicked on the email link and sure enough it was back up and working fine. Lost some attendees, but still had over 150 when it was back up and running again and I only lost a few minutes. Session went well and there were lots of good questions at the end, wish I could answer all of the when/what type questions, but that is all part of doing a presentation on a beta product that we don't know everything about yet. Stay tuned to this space for a link to the video once it is posted next week and I'll answer any questions that we didn't get to at the end of the session.

Then on Thursday night I got the email that I didn't think I was going to get until later on Friday. After 4 attempts I'll be speaking at PASS Summit 2015 in a regular session slot! I was jumping for joy last night when I got the email and had to read it 4 times just to make sure. I know that there is a lot of controversy in the SQL Community about the selection process for PASS Summit, but I have been a Program Committee Volunteer for 3 years in a row now and I know that it has gotten better over those years and has helped me understand what it takes to put something like this on (along with organizing 4 SQLSaturdays). So, in October I'll be presenting my "Date Dimension: Past & Future in One Script" session, which is definitely one of my favorite sessions that I have done many times over the last couple of years. The cool thing is that this presentation came from a Lightning Talk that I did at PASS Summit 2013 (my first time speaking at a PASS Summit). Just goes to show you what patience and experience can do. I'll also be doing another Lightning Talk at PASS Summit 2015 on "Power BI Designer: Nothing to Dashboard in 10 Minutes!". Looking forward to putting this one together since it should be a lot of fun and for those doubters out there I will even be able to show how to do at least 2 dashboards in 10 minutes! :)  If you have not yet registered for PASS Summit 2015, please click on this link and use the discount code LC15WTG2 to get $150 off!

And not to get too political or anything, but the week was topped off with the SCOTUS gay marriage decision, which my response is: "It's about time!". Way to go SCOTUS, very proud to be an American today!

Looking forward to the US Women's World Cup game tonight against China and relaxing a bit over this weekend, cause after reading this I'm already really tired. :)

What a week!
Tuesday, June 23, 2015 8:29:49 AM
In the previous post, I gave an overview of what the SQLPS provider is and how it works. Now I want to pull back the curtains a bit and demonstrate how you can navigate the provider and use it effectively for managing your SQL Server instances. For those new to Powershell, this can be an […]
Tuesday, June 16, 2015 6:58:08 AM
One of the key entry points for using Powershell and SQL Server is the SQLPS provider. If you’ve been reading my blog for any length of time, you’ve seen me make use of the provider for one task or another. It’s an incredibly useful tool and can help you manage some basic tasks in SQL […]
Tuesday, June 09, 2015 6:32:13 AM
I’ll be the first to tell you I’m not a fan of extended events. The why is a whole other blog post unto itself, but since T-SQL Tuesday is all about learning, I figured I’d take a stab at things. Furthermore, since I like to talk about Powershell, it seems like a good opportunity to […]
Wednesday, June 03, 2015 3:00:21 AM
Last week, while perusing through the usual interesting links from Twitter, I came across an article from Kendra Little (@Kendra_Little) titled “Not Everything Should be Automated”. It’s brief post where Kendra talks about why she has stopped automating some of her tasks. The title is attention grabbing (well, it grabbed MY attention), but there’s a […]
Friday, May 29, 2015 3:25:00 AM
This article is part 7 in a series on the top 10 most common mistakes that I have seen impacting SQL Server Performance and Resiliency. This post is not all inclusive. Most common mistake #7: Disaster Recovery Plans Often people hear disaster recovery plan and the first reaction is to start worrying about the costs. […]
Thursday, May 28, 2015 4:56:44 AM
Keeping with the theme of my last blog post, let’s talk a little more about Powershell basics. More specifically, let’s talk about the basics of reusing your Powershell scripts. Most DBAs have their library of scripts that they take with them from job to job, helping them be more effective at their job. Whether it’s […]
Thursday, May 28, 2015 3:21:01 AM
You might have been following along with my recent series of posts related to a number of resiliency tips for SQL Server. I have compiled these tips based off my observations over the last 20 or so years. Over the summer I have the opportunity to present a session that is based on these tips. […]
Friday, May 22, 2015 9:45:18 AM
I am proud to announce that I have been selected to present a webinar as part of the 24 Hours of PASS series on June 24-25! The theme of this 24 Hours of PASS is Growing Our Community, which is all about speakers who have not yet presented a regular session or pre-con at the PASS Summit in previous years. While I have presented at the last 2 PASS Summits in both cases they were 10 minute Lightning Talks, not a regular session (fingers crossed that I get one this year). If you have not yet registered for PASS Summit 2015 in Seattle on 10/27 - 10/30, then use this link to register and the discount code LC15WTG2 to get $150 off!

I will be presenting my "Introduction to the Power BI Designer" session at noon MT/18:00 GMT, which I have given at other venues a couple of times before and is now my new favorite session. I love how the new Power BI is coming along and it is also a challenge to demo with the product being updated at least once every month.

If you can attend any of these 24 sessions starting at 6am MT/noon GMT, please register as there is a fantastic line-up of sessions/speakers for these 24 hours and I'm honored to be in this group!

Thursday, May 14, 2015 4:38:37 PM

How I collect network statistics during benchmarks.
by the hardworking DBA…
as of 2/17/2013

I am benchmarking an Oracle stored procedure these days.  We have a 1 second SLA on this procedure.   It returns a rather large payload, sometimes exceeding 10,000 records and 5MB of data.   I have challenged the justification for that, and I am reassured that is what the application requires.  

I was especially curious how many network packets it takes to move that much data.   The ping command told me the average network round-trip speed between the server host and the client host is 0.14s.    That might be OK for a small payload, but if it takes 250,000 packets per call, at 0.14ms per packet, that would threaten my SLA.

If I wanted to check the impact of this stored procedure on the network, how could I do that?

Linux has a command, “netstat –s”, that produces the report shown in Listing 1 below.    It reports a lot of statistics about network usage.   I could run that before and after, and compare the results, right? 

The challenge is that the statistics are relative to when the machine last started.   I only care about statistics during a short period of time.   I cannot easily compare two 10-digit numbers that show total packets received, and tell if the difference is significant.    And a lot of the statistics reported don’t change at all.   I only care about the measures that changed.  

The solution is to
            1) take a “netstat –s” snapshot before the benchmark.
            2) run the benchmark.
            3) take a second “netstat –s” snapshot after the benchmark, and
            4) report any differences in a meaningful, human-readable way.

The result is a report such as the one shown in Listing 2.   While I was developing the script,  I followed the netstat-differential report with some other statistics from sar and a list of the machines connected to my node.   Those things have helped me talk to few other issues.  It doesn’t hurt to know such things.  

The script that produces Listing 2 is shown in Listing 3.

Check it out.  Maybe that will give you an idea?

Best wishes to always have good network throughput!
~ the hard-working DBA

Listing 1 – Typical output from the netstat –s command.

> netstat -s
    1346387939 total packets received
    2943839 with invalid addresses
    0 forwarded
    0 incoming packets discarded
    1282689297 incoming packets delivered
    3791124361 requests sent out
    19013 outgoing packets dropped
    6 fragments dropped after timeout
    128 reassemblies required
    26 packets reassembled ok
    6 packet reassembles failed
    136 fragments received ok
    19012 fragments failed
    422 fragments created
    74159 ICMP messages received
    255 input ICMP message failed.
    ICMP input histogram:
        destination unreachable: 24427
        timeout in transit: 7
        echo requests: 3238
        echo replies: 46462
        timestamp request: 17
        address mask request: 8
    93967 ICMP messages sent
    0 ICMP messages failed
    ICMP output histogram:
        destination unreachable: 25376
        echo request: 65521
        echo replies: 3053
        timestamp replies: 17
        InType0: 46462
        InType3: 24427
        InType8: 3238
        InType11: 7
        InType13: 17
        InType17: 8
        OutType0: 3053
        OutType3: 25376
        OutType8: 65521
        OutType14: 17
    18330381 active connections openings
    10578845 passive connection openings
    31217 failed connection attempts
    804128 connection resets received
    150 connections established
    1104945674 segments received
    3666265534 segments send out
    2514600 segments retransmited
    31 bad segments received.
    242582 resets sent
    122170701 packets received
    16624 packets to unknown port received.
    0 packet receive errors
    122252674 packets sent
    89760 invalid SYN cookies received
    2411 resets received for embryonic SYN_RECV sockets
    65 packets pruned from receive queue because of socket buffer overrun
    211 ICMP packets dropped because they were out-of-window
    14535660 TCP sockets finished time wait in fast timer
    181501 time wait sockets recycled by time stamp
    1370 packets rejects in established connections because of timestamp
    126238132 delayed acks sent
    43908 delayed acks further delayed because of locked socket
    Quick ack mode was activated 1727250 times
    372 times the listen queue of a socket overflowed
    372 SYNs to LISTEN sockets ignored
    521838861 packets directly queued to recvmsg prequeue.
    3963876152 packets directly received from backlog
    3457491267 packets directly received from prequeue
    293190 packets dropped from prequeue
    3307290762 packets header predicted
    3884415728 packets header predicted and directly queued to user
    886041005 acknowledgments not containing data received
    1618307249 predicted acknowledgments
    1 times recovered from packet loss due to fast retransmit
    549898 times recovered from packet loss due to SACK data
    3 bad SACKs received
    Detected reordering 163 times using FACK
    Detected reordering 3012 times using SACK
    Detected reordering 613 times using time stamp
    616 congestion windows fully recovered
    7910 congestion windows partially recovered using Hoe heuristic
    TCPDSACKUndo: 459
    10024 congestion windows recovered after partial ack
    2549350 TCP data loss events
    TCPLostRetransmit: 28
    1 timeouts after reno fast retransmit
    5440 timeouts after SACK recovery
    1123 timeouts in loss state
    2193866 fast retransmits
    93844 forward retransmits
    99062 retransmits in slow start
    71073 other TCP timeouts
    TCPRenoRecoveryFail: 1
    12967 sack retransmits failed
    265222 times receiver scheduled too late for direct processing
    17038 packets collapsed in receive queue due to low socket buffer
    1721513 DSACKs sent for old packets
    49 DSACKs sent for out of order packets
    10316 DSACKs received
    550 DSACKs for out of order packets received
    29 connections reset due to unexpected SYN
    770680 connections reset due to unexpected data
    53290 connections reset due to early user close
    4355 connections aborted due to timeout
    InMcastPkts: 862471
    InBcastPkts: 54622317

Listing 2 – An example of the output from the script.
Netstat Differential Report.

                                      total packets received: 8210
                                      with invalid addresses: 1
                                  incoming packets delivered: 8173
                                           requests sent out: 8670
                                 active connections openings: 68
                                 passive connection openings: 31
                                  connection resets received: 2
                                           segments received: 8012
                                           segments send out: 8522
                                            packets received: 148
                                                packets sent: 148
                TCP sockets finished time wait in fast timer: 53
                                           delayed acks sent: 211
                packets directly queued to recvmsg prequeue.: 4746
                     packets directly received from prequeue: 2240426
                                    packets header predicted: 1601
        packets header predicted and directly queued to user: 4731
                acknowledgments not containing data received: 622
                                   predicted acknowledgments: 5877
                    connections reset due to unexpected data: 2
                                                 InBcastPkts: 13

End of Netstat Differential Report.
Recent Network stats reported by SAR.
12:00:01 AM     IFACE   rxpck/s   txpck/s   rxbyt/s   txbyt/s   rxcmp/s   txcmp/s  rxmcst/s
07:50:01 PM        lo     15.97     15.97  49533.85  49533.85      0.00      0.00      0.00
07:50:01 PM      eth0    139.20    179.11  90875.86 131371.47      0.00      0.00      0.44
07:50:01 PM      eth1     34.23     35.50   6752.12  18519.29      0.00      0.00      0.44
07:50:01 PM      eth2      1.75      0.01    159.03      0.65      0.00      0.00      0.44
07:50:01 PM      eth3      1.99      0.00    183.95      0.11      0.00      0.00      0.44
07:50:01 PM      sit0      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00
Connections are seen to the following hosts.

Listing 3 – Korn-shell script that produces the netstat differential report shown above.

> cat netstat_differential_report.ksh

# This script simplifies taking a netstat snapshot before a benchmark, taking
# another netstat snapshot after a benchmark, and then reporting a
# comparison of just the network statistics that changed during the benchmark.
# See the show_usage function for more explanation.
# History
# Feb 2013 SWC  Wrote it.

export NET_FILE_1
export NET_FILE_2
show_usage ()
cat     <<-EOF
        $0 -n SNAPSHOT_NUMBER [-h|-?]
        -n enables specification of a snapshot number.

        When you say "-n 1", the script will run netstat -s and save the
                output for future reference.
        When you say "-n 2", the script will run netstat -s, and display a
                report of the differences in network statistics since
                the first snapshot was saved.

The temporary files used by this script are saved in a subdirectory called logs.

Best wishes.
exit 1
# Parse the command line parameters.
if [ $# -eq 0 ]; then

while getopts n: option
        case $option in
                n) SNAPSHOT_NUM=$OPTARG
                h) show_usage
                \?) show_usage


if [ "$SNAPSHOT_NUM." = "." ]; then
        echo "Error: Please specify which snapshot_number to process."
        exit 1

DIR=`dirname $0`
cd $DIR
BASE=`basename $0 .ksh`

if [ ! -d $DIR/logs ]; then
        mkdir $DIR/logs

# Use this version when the netstat statistic is at the start of the line.
report_netstat_diff_v1 ()

        grep "$S$" $NET_FILE_1 | awk '{print $1}' | read V1
        grep "$S$" $NET_FILE_2 | awk '{print $1}' | read V2
        let V=V2-V1
        if [ $V -ne 0 ]; then
                printf "%60.60s: %d\n" "$S" $V

                echo    $S      >> $NET_STRING_FILE
# Use this version when the netstat statistic follows a colon.
report_netstat_diff_v2 ()

        grep "$S" $NET_FILE_1 | cut -f2 -d':' | read V1
        grep "$S" $NET_FILE_2 | cut -f2 -d':' | read V2
        let V=V2-V1
        if [ $V -ne 0 ]; then
                printf "%60.60s: %d\n" "$S" $V

                echo    $S      >> $NET_STRING_FILE
# Use this version when the netstat statistic is in the middle of the line.
report_netstat_diff_v3 ()

        grep "$S1" $NET_FILE_1 | grep "$S2" | cut -f$FIELD_NUM -d' ' | read V1
        grep "$S1" $NET_FILE_2 | grep "$S2" | cut -f$FIELD_NUM -d' ' | read V2
        let V=V2-V1
        if [ $V -ne 0 ]; then
                printf "%60.60s _ %s: %d\n" "$S1" "$S2" $V

                echo    $S      >> $NET_STRING_FILE

if [ $SNAPSHOT_NUM -eq 1 ]; then
        rm -f $DIR/logs/netstat.*


        netstat -s > $NET_FILE

        if [ ! -f $NET_FILE ]; then
                print "Error: Failed to save snapshot 1."
                exit 1

        print "`date`: Saved netstat snapshot number 1."

elif [ $SNAPSHOT_NUM -eq 2 ]; then
        netstat -s > $NET_FILE

        print "`date`: Saved netstat snapshot number 2."

        # Separate the file contents by section
        for N in 1 2; do
                cat $DIR/logs/netstat.$N.log |
                while read LINE; do
                        if [ "$LINE" = "Ip:" ]; then
                        elif [ "$LINE" = "Icmp:" ]; then
                        elif [ "$LINE" = "ICMP input histogram:" ]; then
                        elif [ "$LINE" = "ICMP output histogram:" ]; then
                        elif [ `echo "$LINE" | grep -c "ICMP messages sent"` -gt 0 ]; then
                                # Continue putting lines back in the regular Icmp file
                        elif [ "$LINE" = "IcmpMsg:" ]; then
                        elif [ "$LINE" = "Tcp:" ]; then
                        elif [ "$LINE" = "Udp:" ]; then
                        elif [ "$LINE" = "TcpExt:" ]; then
                        elif [ "$LINE" = "IpExt:" ]; then

                        echo $LINE >> $OUT_FILE

        printf "%80s\n" " " | tr ' ' '='
        print  "Netstat Differential Report."

        # Now compare the different sections one at a time.
        for TYPE in Ip Icmp Icmp_input Icmp_output IcmpMsg Tcp Udp TcpExt IpExt; do
                rm -f $NET_STRING_FILE
                touch $NET_STRING_FILE

                print "$TYPE:"
                case $TYPE in
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'total packets received'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'with invalid addresses'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'forwarded'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'incoming packets discarded'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'incoming packets delivered'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'requests sent out'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'outgoing packets dropped'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'fragments dropped after timeout'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'reassemblies required'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'packets reassembled ok'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'packet reassembles failed'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'packet reassembles failed'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'fragments received ok'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'fragments failed'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'fragments created'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'ICMP messages received'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'input ICMP message failed.'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'ICMP messages sent'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'ICMP messages failed'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'destination unreachable'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'timeout in transit'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'echo requests'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'echo replies'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'timestamp request'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'address mask request'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'destination unreachable'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'echo request'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'echo replies'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'timestamp replies'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'InType0'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'InType3'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'InType8'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'InType11'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'InType13'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'InType17'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'OutType3'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'OutType8'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'OutType14'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'active connections openings'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'passive connection openings'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'failed connection attempts'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'connection resets received'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'connections established'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'segments received'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'segments send out'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'segments retransmited'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'bad segments received.'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'resets sent'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'packets received'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'packets sent'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'packet receive errors'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'packets to unknown port received.'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'invalid SYN cookies received'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'resets received for embryonic SYN_RECV sockets'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'packets pruned from receive queue because of socket buffer overrun'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'ICMP packets dropped because they were out-of-window'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'TCP sockets finished time wait in fast timer'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'time wait sockets recycled by time stamp'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'packets rejects in established connections because of timestamp'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'delayed acks sent'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'delayed acks further delayed because of locked socket'
                                report_netstat_diff_v3 'Quick ack mode was activated'    6 'times'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'times the listen queue of a socket overflowed'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'SYNs to LISTEN sockets ignored'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'packets directly queued to recvmsg prequeue.'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'packets directly received from backlog'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'packets directly received from prequeue'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'packets dropped from prequeue'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'packets header predicted'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'packets header predicted and directly queued to user'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'acknowledgments not containing data received'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'predicted acknowledgments'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'times recovered from packet loss due to fast retransmit'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'times recovered from packet loss due to SACK data'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'bad SACKs received'
                                report_netstat_diff_v3 'Detected reordering' 3 'times using FACK'
                                report_netstat_diff_v3 'Detected reordering' 3 'times using SACK'
                                report_netstat_diff_v3 'Detected reordering' 3 'times using time stamp'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'congestion windows fully recovered'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'congestion windows partially recovered using Hoe heuristic'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'TCPDSACKUndo'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'congestion windows recovered after partial ack'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'TCP data loss events'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'TCPLostRetransmit'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'timeouts after reno fast retransmit'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'timeouts after SACK recovery'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'timeouts in loss state'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'fast retransmits'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'forward retransmits'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'retransmits in slow start'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'other TCP timeouts'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'TCPRenoRecoveryFail'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'sack retransmits failed'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'times receiver scheduled too late for direct processing'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'packets collapsed in receive queue due to low socket buffer'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'DSACKs sent for old packets'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'connections reset due to unexpected SYN'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'connections reset due to unexpected data'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'connections reset due to early user close'
                                report_netstat_diff_v1 'connections aborted due to timeout'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'InMcastPkts'
                                report_netstat_diff_v2 'InBcastPkts'

                # Show any strings that might have been missed in the case-statement above.
                diff $NET_FILE_1 $NET_FILE_2            |
                        grep -v '\-\-\-'                |
                        grep -v '[0-9],[0-9]'           |
                        grep -v '[0-9]c[0-9]'           |
                        grep -v -f $NET_STRING_FILE

        print  "End of Netstat Differential Report."
        printf "%80s\n" " " | tr ' ' '='

        print  "Recent Network stats reported by SAR."
        sar -n DEV | grep IFACE | head -1
        sar -n DEV | grep -v Average | tail -6

        printf "%80s\n" " " | tr ' ' '='
        print  "Connections are seen to the following hosts."
        netstat -nat | awk '{ print $5}' | cut -d: -f1 | sed -e '/^$/d' | sort -u > $IP_FILE

        grep '\.' $IP_FILE |
        while read IP; do
                nslookup $IP 2>&1 | grep name | cut -f2 -d'=' >> $NS_FILE
        sort -u $NS_FILE

        # Cleanup
        rm $NS_FILE
        rm $IP_FILE

        rm $DIR/logs/netstat.*

…End of another blog by the hardworking DBA!
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